The move was made retroactive to Thursday, the day after Mesoraco last appeared in a game. He had attempted to catch some sessions in the bullpen last week, but continued to experience stiffness and soreness.
"The catching drills did not go well," Reds manager Bryan Price said.
Mesoraco was an All-Star in 2014. Among Reds catchers, only Mesoraco and Johnny Bench have banged out 25 home runs and driven in 80 runs in the same season.
Relief pitcher Manny Parra was reinstated from the DL and replaced Mesoraco on the 25-man roster. The left-hander had been on the shelf since April 29 with a strained neck.